Neuroprotective effects of NU1025, a PARP inhibitor in cerebral ischemia are mediated through reduction in NAD depletion and DNA fragmentation

Ravinder K Kaundal, Kaushik K Shah, Shyam S Sharma
Life Sciences 2006 November 10, 79 (24): 2293-302
Oxidative stress induced cell injury is reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical along with nitric oxide and peroxynitrite generated during ischemia-reperfusion injury, causes the overactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) leading to neuronal cell death. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of PARP inhibitor, 8-hydroxy-2 methyl-quinazolin-4-[3H]one (NU1025) in H2O2 and 3-morphilinosyndonimine (SIN-1) induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells as well as in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Exposure of PC12 cells to H2O2 (0.4 mM) and SIN-1 (0.8 mM) resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability after 6 h. Pretreatment with NU1025 (0.2 mM) restored cell viability to approximately 73 and 82% in H2O2 and SIN-1 injured cells, respectively. In MCAO studies, NU1025 was administered at different time points (1 h before reperfusion, immediately before reperfusion, 3 h after reperfusion and 6 h after reperfusion). NU1025 at 1 and 3 mg/kg reduced total infarct volume to 25% and 45%, respectively, when administered 1 h before reperfusion. NU1025 also produced significant improvement in neurological deficits. Neuroprotection with NU1025 was associated with reduction in PAR accumulation, reversal of brain NAD depletion and reduction in DNA fragmentation. Results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective activity of NU1025 and suggest its potential in cerebral ischemia.

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