Long-term outcomes after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: the first decade

David C Brewster, John E Jones, Thomas K Chung, Glenn M Lamuraglia, Christopher J Kwolek, Michael T Watkins, Thomas M Hodgman, Richard P Cambria
Annals of Surgery 2006, 244 (3): 426-38

OBJECTIVE: The proper role of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) remains controversial, largely due to uncertain late results. We reviewed a 12-year experience with EVAR to document late outcomes.

METHODS: During the interval January 7, 1994 through December 31, 2005, 873 patients underwent EVAR utilizing 10 different stent graft devices. Primary outcomes examined included operative mortality, aneurysm rupture, aneurysm-related mortality, open surgical conversion, and late survival rates. The incidence of endoleak, migration, aneurysm enlargement, and graft patency was also determined. Finally, the need for reintervention and success of such secondary procedures were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate methodology were used for analysis.

RESULTS: Mean patient age was 75.7 years (range, 49-99 years); 81.4% were male. Mean follow-up was 27 months; 39.3% of patients had 2 or more major comorbidities, and 19.5% would be categorized as unfit for open repair. On an intent-to-treat basis, device deployment was successful in 99.3%. Thirty-day mortality was 1.8%. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, freedom from AAA rupture was 97.6% at 5 years and 94% at 9 years. Significant risk factors for late AAA rupture included female gender (odds ratio OR, 6.9; P = 0.004) and device-related endoleak (OR, 16.06; P = 0.009). Aneurysm-related death was avoided in 96.1% of patients, with the need for any reintervention (OR, 5.7 P = 0.006), family history of aneurysmal disease (OR, 9.5; P = 0.075), and renal insufficiency (OR, 7.1; P = 0.003) among its most important predictors. 87 (10%) patients required reintervention, with 92% of such procedures being catheter-based and a success rate of 84%. Significant predictors of reintervention included use of first-generation devices (OR, 1.2; P < 0.01) and late onset endoleak (OR, 64; P < 0.001). Current generation stent grafts correlated with significantly improved outcomes. Cumulative freedom from conversion to open repair was 93.3% at 5 through 9 years, with the need for prior reintervention (OR, 16.7; P = 0.001) its most important predictor. Cumulative survival was 52% at 5 years.

CONCLUSIONS: EVAR using contemporary devices is a safe, effective, and durable method to prevent AAA rupture and aneurysm-related death. Assuming suitable AAA anatomy, these data justify a broad application of EVAR across a wide spectrum of patients.

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