Gigantol isolated from the whole plants of Cymbidium goeringii inhibits the LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via NF-kappaB inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages cells

Jong-Heon Won, Ji-Yeon Kim, Kyung-Jin Yun, Jin-Hee Lee, Nam-In Back, Hae-Gon Chung, Sun A Chung, Tae-Sook Jeong, Myung-Sook Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee
Planta Medica 2006, 72 (13): 1181-7
During our efforts to find bioactive natural products with anti-inflammatory activity, we isolated gigantol from the whole plants of Cymbidium goeringii (Orchidaceae) by activity-guided chromatographic fractionation. Gigantol was found to have potent inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (2) (PGE (2)) production in RAW 264.7 cells. Consistent with these findings, gigantol suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein and mRNA levels in RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data also indicate that gigantol is a potent inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) release and influenced the mRNA expression levels of these cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, a reporter gene assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and an electromobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that gigantol effectively inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB, which is necessary for the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. Thus, our studies suggest that gigantol inhibits LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression by blocking NF- kappaB activation.

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