[The new 2005 resuscitation guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council: comments and supplements]

V Wenzel, S Russo, H R Arntz, J Bahr, M A Baubin, B W Böttiger, B Dirks, V Dörges, C Eich, M Fischer, B Wolcke, S Schwab, W G Voelckel, H W Gervais
Der Anaesthesist 2006, 55 (9): 958-66, 968-72, 974-9
The new CPR guidelines are based on a scientific consensus which was reached by 281 international experts. Chest compressions (100/min, 4-5 cm deep) should be performed in a ratio of 30:2 with ventilation (tidal volume 500 ml, Ti 1 s, FIO2 if possible 1.0). After a single defibrillation attempt (initially biphasic 150-200 J, monophasic 360 J, subsequently with the respective highest energy), chest compressions are initiated again immediately for 2 min. Endotracheal intubation is the gold standard; other airway devices may be employed as well depending on individual skills. Drug administration routes for adults and children: first choice IV, second choice intraosseous, third choice endobronchial [epinephrine dose 2-3x (adults) or 10x (pediatric patients) higher than IV]. Vasopressors: 1 mg epinephrine every 3-5 min IV. After the third unsuccessful defibrillation attempt amiodarone IV (300 mg); repetition (150 mg) possible. Sodium bicarbonate (1 ml/kg 8.4%) only in excessive hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, or intoxication with tricyclic antidepressants. Consider atropine (3 mg) and aminophylline (5 mg/kg). Thrombolysis during spontaneous circulation only in myocardial infarction or massive pulmonary embolism; during CPR only during massive pulmonary embolism. Cardiopulmonary bypass only after cardiac surgery, hypothermia or intoxication. Pediatrics: best improvement in outcome by preventing cardiocirculatory collapse. Alternate chest thumps and chest compression (infants), or abdominal compressions (>1-year-old) in foreign body airway obstruction. Initially five breaths, followed by chest compressions (100/min; approximately 1/3 of chest diameter): ventilation ratio 15:2. Treatment of potentially reversible causes (4 "Hs", "HITS": hypoxia, hypovolemia, hypo- and hyperkaliemia, hypothermia, cardiac tamponade, intoxication, thrombo-embolism, tension pneumothorax). Epinephrine 10 microg/kg IV or intraosseously, or 100 microg (endobronchially) every 3-5 min. Defibrillation (4 J/kg; monophasic oder biphasic) followed by 2 min CPR, then ECG and pulse check. Newborns: inflate the lungs with bag-valve mask ventilation. If heart rate<60/min chest compressions:ventilation ratio 3:1 (120 chest compressions/min). Postresuscitation phase: initiate mild hypothermia [32-34 degrees C for 12-24 h; slow rewarming (<0.5 degrees C/h)]. Prediction of CPR outcome is not possible at the scene; determining neurological outcome within 72 h after cardiac arrest with evoked potentials, biochemical tests and physical examination. Even during low suspicion for an acute coronary syndrome, record a prehospital 12-lead ECG. In parallel to pain therapy, aspirin (160-325 mg PO or IV) and in addition clopidogrel (300 mg PO). As antithrombin, heparin (60 IU/kg, max. 4000 IU) or enoxaparine. In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, define reperfusion strategy depending on duration of symptoms until PCI (prevent delay>90 min until PCI). Stroke is an emergency and needs to be treated in a stroke unit. A CT scan is the most important evaluation, MRT may replace a CT scan. After hemorrhage exclusion, thrombolysis within 3 h of symptom onset (0.9 mg/kg rt-PA IV; max 90 mg within 60 min, 10% of the entire dosage as initial bolus, no aspirin, no heparin within the first 24 h). In severe hemorrhagic shock, definite control of bleeding is the most important goal. For successful CPR of trauma patients, a minimal intravascular volume status and management of hypoxia are essential. Aggressive fluid resuscitation, hyperventilation, and excessive ventilation pressure may impair outcome in severe hemorrhagic shock. Despite bad prognosis, CPR in trauma patients may be successful in select cases. Any CPR training is better than nothing; simplification of contents and processes remains important.

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