Prognostic factors for patients with cirrhosis and kidney dysfunction in the era of MELD: results of a prospective study

Michael Schepke, Beate Appenrodt, Jörg Heller, Julia Zielinski, Tilman Sauerbruch
Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 2006, 26 (7): 834-9

BACKGROUND/AIM: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence and prognostic impact of kidney dysfunction due to other causes in cirrhotic patients are less well known. The current study prospectively evaluated the incidence and the prognostic relevance of different etiologies of kidney failure in cirrhotic patients.

METHODS: Eighty-eight consecutive patients with cirrhosis and serum creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dl were enrolled. The etiologies of kidney dysfunction were analyzed, and prognostic factors including Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score were evaluated in a multivariate Cox model.

RESULTS: HRS was present in 35 (40%) patients (15 HRS 1, 20 HRS 2), followed by renal parenchymal disease (23%), drug-induced kidney dysfunction (19%) and prerenal failure due to bleeding or infections (15%). HRS patients had a significantly higher MELD score and shorter survival. In addition to the MELD score, only HRS 1 was independently predictive for survival. HRS 2 patients had a similar outcome as patients with non-HRS kidney dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with cirrhosis and renal failure, hepatorenal syndrome is associated with a worse prognosis than kidney dysfunction due to other conditions but only HRS type 1 has independent prognostic relevance in addition to the MELD score in these patients.

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