Evaluation of HI 6 treatment after percutaneous VR exposure by use of a kinetic-based dynamic computer model

N Aurbek, H Thiermann, L Szinicz, F Worek
Toxicology 2007 April 20, 233 (1): 173-9
The availability of highly toxic OP-type chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) and the exertion of organophosphorus compounds during military conflicts and terrorist attacks against civilians in the past underlines the necessity of an effective treatment regimen of OP-poisoning. Presently, standard treatment includes administration of an antimuscarinic agent (e.g. atropine) and a reactivator of inhibited AChE (oxime), but is considered to be rather ineffective with certain nerve agents due to low oxime effectiveness of the currently available oximes, obidoxime and pralidoxime. The evaluation of new oximes as antidotes relies on the implementation of animal experiments for ethical reasons and is complicated by a limited extrapolation of animal data to humans. The development of a reliable animal model might accelerate the evaluation of new substances and their approval as antidotes, whereas, the pig as higher mammalian species seems to be promising as model animal. A dynamic in vitro model, which allows the calculation of AChE activities at different scenarios was developed to facilitate the definition of effective oxime concentrations and the optimization of oxime treatment of OP poisoning of humans and may furthermore be helpful by designing animal experiments. The model is based on a combination of enzyme kinetics (inhibition, reactivation, aging) of AChE with OP, toxicokinetics and oxime pharmacokinetics. By considering species-specific kinetic data this dynamic model was used for the calculation of AChE activities in humans and pigs after percutaneous exposure with 5x LD(50) VR (Russian VX) and treatment with HI 6, a promising new reactivator of OP-inhibited AChE. Due to a low affinity of HI 6 with VR-inhibited pig AChE the oxime dose that causes maximal reactivation of VR-inhibited pig AChE is conspicuously higher compared to humans. Therefore, the design of animal experiments in consideration of calculated data based on species-specific kinetic values may lead to a more reliable extrapolation of animal data to humans and may reduce the number of necessary animal experiments.

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