Effects of laparoscopic pneumoperitoneum and changes in position on arterial pulse pressure wave-form: comparison between morbidly obese and normal-weight patients

Thierry Guenoun, Emma Joelle Aka, Didier Journois, Hervé Philippe, Jean-Marc Chevallier, Denis Safran
Obesity Surgery 2006, 16 (8): 1075-81

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is commonly indicated in morbidly obese patients. There is controversy regarding the hemodynamic effects of pneumoperitoneum (PNP) in obese patients. PNP and changes in body posture have complex effects on venous return that may be detected by respiratory changes in the arterial pressure waveform. The aim of this study was to compare pneumoperitoneum-induced and reverse Trendelenburg (RT) changes in arterial pulse pressure in obese and normal-weight patients.

METHODS: 15 morbidly obese patients undergoing LAGB were compared to 15 normal-weight patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Arterial pressure was non-invasively recorded using an arterial tonometer. Respiratory changes in pulse pressure (deltaPp) were recorded in the supine position without and with PNP, and in RT position with pneumoperitoneum.

RESULTS: PNP increased deltaPp values in normal weight (P<0.001), but not in obese patients. RT position increased deltaPp values in obese patients, but did not cause additional changes in normal-weight patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Unlike normal-weight patients, PNP in the supine position has minimal effect on the arterial pulse-pressure wave-form in obese patients. This observation may reflect physiological differences in total blood volume and loading conditions of the heart between morbidly obese and normal-weight patients, which affect venous return during PNP. Differences in abdominal vascular zone conditions between obese and normal weight-patients may explain these results.

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