JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

[What do large clinical trials learn us about cardiovascular and renal prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension?]

Bertrand Dussol, Yvon Berland
Néphrologie & Thérapeutique 2006, 2 (2): 51-74
16895717
Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension are frequently associated. Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in these patients. Furthermore a renal disease appears in 40% of them that may lead to chronic terminal renal failure. Whatever the stage of the renal disease, it increases the cardiovascular risk. A majority of type 2 diabetic patients will eventually died of cardiovascular complications before having reached chronic terminal renal failure. Many large clinical trials including type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension have been performed in the last 20 years with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as primary outcomes. These trials mainly evaluated the role of glycemic control, of hypertension as well as the decrease of LDL-cholesterol. Based on these trials, the prescription type of hypertensive type 2 diabetic patient should include, besides hygienic and dietary advices, antidiabetic treatment, thiazide and/or betablocker and platelet inhibitor. Statin should be prescribed for secondary prevention if serum LDL-cholesterol is above 1,3 g/l and for primary prevention depending on serum LDL-cholesterol and on the number of cardiovascular risk factors. The objectives are an HbA1c below 6,5%, a LDL-cholesterol below 1g/l and a blood pressure below 150/80 mmHg. The appearance of diabetic nephropathy alters the treatment and the therapeutic objectives. Many large trials aimed at preventing microalbuminuria (primary prevention), macroproteinuria (secondary prevention), and chronic renal failure (tertiary prevention) have been conducted. For primary prevention, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors should be prescribed in case of hypertension because they delay the appearance of microalbuminuria. For secondary prevention, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers decrease albuminuria excretion rate and delay the appearance of macroproteinuria whatever the blood pressure. Tertiary prevention is based on angiotensin-receptor blockers since they slow down the decrease of renal function. The objectives are a blood pressure below 130/80 mmHg and the regression or the reduction of albuminuria excretion rate. Intensified and target-driven interventions aimed at multiple risk factors implicated in cardiovascular and renal lesions, as successfully performed in the STENO-2 study, reduce the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. In this article, large clinical trials having the prevention of cardiovascular and renal risks as primary outcomes were analyzed.

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