Direct thrombin inhibition appears to be a safe and effective anticoagulant for percutaneous bypass graft interventions

John Kao, A Michael Lincoff, Eric J Topol, Antonio Madrid, Matthew J Price, Neil Sawhney, Paul S Teirstein
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 2006, 68 (3): 352-6

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) are associated with worse outcomes compared with those of native coronary PCI. Little is known concerning the use of direct thrombin inhibition during CABG intervention. The objective of this report is to examine the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin with GPIIb/IIIa blockade inhibition in patients undergoing CABG PCI. GP IIb/IIIa use was provisional in REPLACE-2 and planned in REPLACE-1.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A post hoc analysis of patients undergoing CABG PCI in the REPLACE-1 and -2 trials was performed. In REPLACE-1, patients were randomized to either heparin or bivalirudin, with GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use at the operator's discretion. In REPLACE-2, patients were randomized to heparin plus GP IIb/IIIa inhibition versus bivalirudin with provisional GP IIb/IIIa blockade. In both studies, randomized treatment groups were well matched. In unadjusted and logistic regression analysis, there were no significant differences in the combined endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, urgent revascularization, or major bleeding when patients were treated with either heparin or bivalirudin. Individual safety and efficacy endpoints were also similar. Minor bleeding was significantly reduced in patients treated with bivalirudin (14.8% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.037). Follow-up data available from the REPLACE-2 trial at 12 months found similar efficacy between groups with a trend towards decreased 12 month mortality in the bivalirudin vs. heparin groups (4.2% vs. 7.8%, P = 0.16).

CONCLUSION: CABG PCI using bivalirudin with provisional GPIIb/IIIa inhibition appears to provide similar safety and efficacy to heparin with GPIIb/IIIa inhibition.

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