Modulation of MAPK ERK1 and ERK2 in VDR-positive and -negative breast cancer cell lines

T Cordes, D Diesing, S Becker, K Diedrich, J Reichrath, M Friedrich
Anticancer Research 2006, 26 (4): 2749-53
1alpha-25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D, is known to regulate calcium and phosphate levels in bone metabolism. It is also known to influence proliferation and differentiation in carcinoma cells mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The antiproliferative effects of calcitriol are believed to be mediated by the nuclear pathway via binding the activated receptor to vitamin D-responsive elements. This induces the vitamin D-responsive genes. Another possible pathway might be the MAPK-cascade or rapid response pathway. The interaction of calcitriol and the MAP-kinase-cascade was evaluated on VDR-positive MCF-7 cells and VDR-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The cells were incubated with calcitriol solution at 10(-7) M and 10(-9) M, or ethanol as controls, for up to 48 h. The effects of calcitriol were measured by semi-quantitative Western blotting. Calcitriol stimulated the MAP-kinases ERK1 and ERK2. A biphasic activation was found for calcitriol in VDR-positive cells after incubation for 5 to 20 min and from 2 to 24 h. However, early activation of ERK1 and ERK2 was also demonstrated in VDR-negative cells. In the controls, ethanol also induced the MAPK-cascade at 5 to 10 min. Calcitriol induction was demonstrated after incubation from 2 to 24 h. In conclusion, it seems that the early induction of the MAPK-cascade was independent of the VDR. A calcitriol-induced MAPK activation was shown after 4 h, which may have been caused by activation of the nuclear receptor pathway.

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