Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial

Joanna McMillan-Price, Peter Petocz, Fiona Atkinson, Kathleen O'neill, Samir Samman, Katherine Steinbeck, Ian Caterson, Jennie Brand-Miller
Archives of Internal Medicine 2006 July 24, 166 (14): 1466-75

BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of low-glycemic index (GI) and high-protein diets, to our knowledge no randomized, controlled trials have systematically compared their relative effects on weight loss and cardiovascular risk.

METHODS: A total of 129 overweight or obese young adults (body mass index, > or =25 [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters]) were assigned to 1 of 4 reduced-fat, high-fiber diets for 12 weeks. Diets 1 and 2 were high carbohydrate (55% of total energy intake), with high and low GIs, respectively; diets 3 and 4 were high protein (25% of total energy intake), with high and low GIs, respectively. The glycemic load was highest in diet 1 and lowest in diet 4. Changes in weight, body composition, and blood chemistry profile were studied.

RESULTS: While all groups lost a similar mean +/- SE percentage of weight (diet 1, -4.2% +/- 0.6%; diet 2, -5.5% +/- 0.5%; diet 3, -6.2% +/- 0.4%; and diet 4, -4.8% +/- 0.7%; P = .09), the proportion of subjects in each group who lost 5% or more of body weight varied significantly by diet (diet 1, 31%; diet 2, 56%; diet 3, 66%; and diet 4, 33%; P = .01). Women on diets 2 and 3 lost approximately 80% more fat mass (-4.5 +/- 0.5 [mean +/- SE] kg and -4.6 +/- 0.5 kg) than those on diet 1 (-2.5 +/- 0.5 kg; P = .007). Mean +/- SE low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels declined significantly in the diet 2 group (-6.6 +/- 3.9 mg/dL [-0.17 +/- 0.10 mmol/L]) but increased in the diet 3 group (+10.0 +/- 3.9 mg/dL [+0.26 +/- 0.10 mmol/L]; P = .02). Goals for energy distribution were not achieved exactly: both carbohydrate groups ate less fat, and the diet 2 group ate more fiber.

CONCLUSION: Both high-protein and low-GI regimens increase body fat loss, but cardiovascular risk reduction is optimized by a high-carbohydrate, low-GI diet.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"