[Pulmonary ventricle bypass operations]

D Alfonso, P Coelho, N Banazol, G Nogueira, M Rebelo, I Freitas, C Trigo, F Pinto, I Fragata, J Fragata
Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torĂ¡cica e Vascular 2006, 13 (2): 69-74

UNLABELLED: Cavopulmonary connections have been extensively used in the palliation of complex forms of congenital heart disease requiring some form of right heart bypass. We examine the mid term outcomes of pulmonary ventricle bypass operations in a single institution and performed by the same surgical team.

POPULATION: Between March 1999 and April 2006, 62 patients underwent pulmonary ventricle bypass operations: bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis (Glenn procedure), total cavopulmonary connections (Fontan procedure) and one and a half ventricle correction in two cases. Age at operation averaged three years (range: 0.42-25 years) for the Glenn procedure and seven years (range: 3-14 years) for the Fontan procedure. There were 36 male patients (58%) and 26 female patients (42%). The most common indication for surgery was the single ventricle defect, present in 66% of patients. Associated lesions included: transposition of the great arteries in 16 patients (35.6%), bilateral superior vena cava in four patients (8.9%), situs ambigus in five patients (11%), situs inversus in another patient (2.2%), Ebstein disease in one patient (2.2) and coronary fistula in another patient (2.2%). Sub-aortic stenosis was present in one patient (2.2%). Palliative surgery was performed in all, but three patients (5%), before the Fontan procedure.

RESULTS: Thirty two patients underwent bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis and thirty patients underwent cavopulmonary connections, total or 2nd stage. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass times were 50.6+/-21.9 minutes for the Glenn procedure and 88.5+/-26.3 minutes for the Fontan procedure. There was no intra-operative mortality, but two patients (3.2% (died in the first month after surgery; one due to failure of the Glenn circuit and sepsis and the other due to a low cardiac output syndrome and multi-organ dysfunction. Mean ventilation time was 5.2+/-1.7 hours for the Glenn operation and 6.2+/-3.2 hours for the Fontan operation. The mean length of stay in ICU was 3.4+/-2.8 days for patients undergoing the Glenn operation and 4.6+/-3.1 days for patients undergoing the Fontan operation and the mean length of hospital stay was 10.6+/-5.8 days for the Glenn operation and 19.1+/-12.6 days for the Fontan operation respectively. The mean follow up time was 4+/-2.1 years (minimum 0 years and maximum seven years), most patients being in NYHA class I. Epicardiac pacemakers were implanted in three patients due to arrhythmias. Two re-operations (6.7%) were needed, both in the same patient, after the Fontan procedure, this patient eventually died a few years after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: The immediate and mid term outcomes of pulmonary ventricle bypass operations can have excellent results. From our point of view there has been an improvement, namely in the use of the extracardiac conduit technique in the 2nd stage of the Fontan operation.

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