Interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 downregulate expression of the SARS coronavirus receptor ACE2 in Vero E6 cells

Anna de Lang, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Bart L Haagmans
Virology 2006 September 30, 353 (2): 474-81
Interferons (IFNs) inhibit severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication and might be valuable for SARS treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment of Vero E6 cells with interleukin-4 (IL-4) decreased the susceptibility of these cells to SARS-CoV infection. In contrast to IFNs, IL-4 did not show antiviral activity when administered immediately after SARS-CoV infection, suggesting that IL-4 acts early during the SARS-CoV replication cycle. Indeed, binding of recombinant SARS-CoV spike protein to Vero E6 cells was diminished on cells treated with IL-4, but also on cells exposed to IFN-gamma. Consistent with these observations, IL-4 and IFN-gamma downregulated cell surface expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV receptor. Besides diminished ACE2 cell surface expression, ACE2 mRNA levels were also decreased after treatment with these cytokines. These findings suggest that IL-4 and IFN-gamma inhibit SARS-CoV replication partly through downregulation of ACE2.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"