JOURNAL ARTICLE
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[Traumatic fat embolism syndrome: a case report].

Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a known complication of traumatology, especially in long bone fractures. Fat embolic events are most often clinically insignificant and difficult to recognize since clinical manifestations are varied and there is no routine laboratory or radiographic diagnostic tool. Classically, FES presents with the triad of pulmonary distress, mental status changes, and petechial rash 24 to 48 hours after long-bone fracture. We report the intensive care management of a 16-year-old female patient who developed traumatic fat embolism syndrome. Traumatic fat embolism was diagnosed, based on suggestive clinical manifestations, radiographic and laboratory findings and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Admission to the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilatory support with positive end-expiratory pressure and supportive therapy leaded to the patient's improvement and she was discharged with planned open reduction and internal fixation.

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