Provisional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade in a randomized investigation of bivalirudin versus heparin plus planned glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition during percutaneous coronary intervention: predictors and outcome in the Randomized Evaluation in Percutaneous coronary intervention Linking Angiomax to Reduced Clinical Events (REPLACE)-2 trial

J Emilio Exaire, Samuel M Butman, Ramin Ebrahimi, Neal S Kleiman, Robert A Harrington, Marc J Schweiger, John A Bittl, Kathy Wolski, Eric J Topol, A Michael Lincoff
American Heart Journal 2006, 152 (1): 157-63

BACKGROUND: The REPLACE-2 trial demonstrated the noninferiority of bivalirudin with provisional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) blockade as compared with heparin plus planned GPIIb/IIIa blockade among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. Provisional drug was used in 374 (6%) of the 6010 patients. We sought to analyze the predictors for provisional drug use and to assess the outcomes in this cohort.

METHODS: Outcome among the 5.2% of patients in the heparin plus GPIIb/IIIa blockade group and the 7.2% of patients in the bivalirudin group who received provisional placebo or GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor, respectively, was compared against patients without provisional drug use and between randomized arms. Multivariate models identified predictors of provisional drug use and outcome at 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year.

RESULTS: Myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and bleeding events occurred more frequently among patients who required provisional drug than those who did not, but there were no differences in 1-year mortality. Ischemic and hemorrhagic end points occurred at similar rates among patients receiving provisional drug in either the heparin plus GPIIb/IIIa group compared with the bivalirudin group. Independent predictors of provisional drug use were randomization to bivalirudin, recent infarction, multilesion intervention, impaired pretreatment coronary flow, and lesion complexity. Provisional drug use, but not randomization to bivalirudin, independently predicted 30-day and 6-month ischemic events.

CONCLUSIONS: Provisional administration of a GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor is associated with more frequent ischemic and bleeding events, reflecting the procedural complications that led to the use of provisional drug. The proportion of bivalirudin-treated patients who will require provisional GPIIb/IIIa blockade, however, is not large enough to have a significant deleterious impact on the overall incidence of ischemic end points or to invalidate the strategy of bivalirudin plus provisional GPIIb/IIIa blockade.

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