JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

A double-blind comparison of intrathecal S(+) ketamine and fentanyl combined with bupivacaine 0.5% for Caesarean delivery

H Unlugenc, M Ozalevli, Y Gunes, S Olguner, C Evrüke, D Ozcengiz, H Akman
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2006, 23 (12): 1018-24
16824240

BACKGROUND: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study, we investigated the sensory, motor and analgesic block characteristics of S(+) ketamine, fentanyl and saline given intrathecally (IT) in addition to 0.5% plain bupivacaine (10 mg) for spinal analgesia.

METHODS: Ninety ASA I or II adult patients undergoing Caesarean section were randomly allocated to receive 1.0 mL of 0.9% saline in Group S (n = 30), 0.05 mg kg-1 of S(+) ketamine (1.0 mL) in Group K (n =30) or 25 microg (1.0 mL) of fentanyl in Group F (n =30) following 10 mg of plain bupivacaine 0.5% IT. We recorded onset and duration of sensory and motor block, time to reach the maximal dermatomal level of sensory block and duration of spinal analgesia.

RESULTS: The onset time of sensory and motor block was significantly shorter in Groups K and F than in Group S (P < 0.014). Their duration was significantly longer in Group F than in Groups K and S (P < 0.009). The time to reach the maximal dermatomal level of sensory block was significantly shorter in Groups K and F than in Group S (P < 0.001). The duration of spinal analgesia was significantly longer in Group F than in Groups K and S (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing Caesarean section with spinal analgesia, the addition of S(+) ketamine (0.05 mg kg-1) IT to 10 mg of spinal plain bupivacaine (0.5%) led to rapid onset of both sensory and motor blockade and enhanced the segmental spread of spinal block without prolonging the duration of spinal analgesia, whereas fentanyl provided prolonged analgesia.

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