Antioxidant and antiradical activities in extracts of hazelnut kernel (Corylus avellana L.) and hazelnut green leafy cover

Cesarettin Alasalvar, Magdalena Karamać, Ryszard Amarowicz, Fereidoon Shahidi
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2006 June 28, 54 (13): 4826-32
Phenolic compounds in the aqueous systems were extracted, from hazelnut kernel (HK) and hazelnut green leafy cover (HGLC), with 80% (v/v) ethanol (HKe and HGLCe) or 80% (v/v) acetone (HKa and HGLCa). The extracts were examined for their phenolic and condensed tannin contents and phenolic acid profiles (free and esterified fractions) as well as antioxidant and antiradical activities by total antioxidant activity (TAA), antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, scavenging of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical, and reducing power. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, and TAA existed among the extracts that were examined. HGLCa extract had the highest content of total phenolics (201 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract), condensed tannins (542 mg of catechin equivalents/g of extract), and TAA (1.29 mmol of Trolox equivalents/g of extract) followed by HGLCe, HKa, and HKe extracts, respectively. Five phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid) were tentatively identified and quantified, among which gallic acid was the most abundant in both free and esterified forms. The order of antioxidant activity in a beta-carotene-linoleate model system, the scavenging effect on DPPH radical, and the reducing power in all extracts were in the following order: HGLCa > HGLCe > HKa > HKe. These results suggest that both 80% ethanol and acetone are capable of extracting phenolics, but 80% acetone was a more effective solvent for the extraction process. HGLC exhibited stronger antioxidant and antiradical activities than HK itself in both extracts and could potentially be considered as an inexpensive source of natural antioxidants.


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