Inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 prevents HIV-1 Tat-mediated neurotoxicity and monocyte activation

Ziye Sui, Shongshan Fan, Lynn Sniderhan, Elizabeth Reisinger, Angela Litzburg, Giovanni Schifitto, Harris A Gelbard, Stephen Dewhurst, Sanjay B Maggirwar
Journal of Immunology 2006 July 1, 177 (1): 702-11
The HIV-1 gene products Tat and gp120 are toxic to neurons and can activate cells of myeloid origin, properties that are thought to contribute to the clinical manifestations of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). To investigate the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved in these events, the effect of Tat and gp120 on mixed lineage kinase (MLK) 3 activation was examined. Tat and gp120 were shown to induce autophosphorylation of MLK3 in primary rat neurons; this was abolished by the addition of an inhibitor of MLK3 (CEP1347). CEP1347 also enhanced survival of both rat and human neurons and inhibited the activation of human monocytes after exposure to Tat and gp120. Furthermore, overexpression of wild-type MLK3 led to the induction of neuronal death, whereas expression of a dominant negative MLK3 mutant protected neurons from the toxic effects of Tat. MLK3-dependent downstream signaling events were implicated in the neuroprotective and monocyte-deactivating pathways triggered by CEP1347. Thus, the inhibition of p38 MAPK and JNK protected neurons from Tat-induced apoptosis, whereas the inhibition of p38 MAPK, but not of JNK, was sufficient to prevent Tat- and gp120-mediated activation of monocytes. These results suggest that the normal function of MLK3 is compromised by HIV-1 neurotoxins (Tat, gp120), resulting in the activation of downstream signaling events that result in neuronal death and monocyte activation (with release of inflammatory cytokines). In aggregate, our data define MLK3 as a promising therapeutic target for intervention in HAD.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"