The Oswestry Disability Index, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale: translation and validation studies of the Iranian versions

Sayed Javad Mousavi, Mohamad Parnianpour, Hossein Mehdian, Ali Montazeri, Bahram Mobini
Spine 2006 June 15, 31 (14): E454-9

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-cultural translation and psychometric testing were performed.

OBJECTIVES: To cross-culturally translate the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS) into Persian, and then investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian versions produced.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To the authors' knowledge, there is no validated instrument to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with low back pain (LBP) in Iran. To our knowledge, the widely used back-specific measures, the ODI, RDQ, and QDS, have not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with LBP.

METHODS: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaires were performed in accordance with published guidelines. A total of 100 patients with chronic LBP were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet (the Persian versions of the ODI, RDQ, QDS, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and visual analog scale measure of pain). There were 31 randomly select patients with chronic LBP asked to complete the second questionnaire booklet 24 hours later.

RESULTS: The Cronbach-alpha for the ODI, RDQ, and QDS was 0.75, 0.83, and 0.92, respectively. The ODI, RDQ, and QDS showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91, 0.86, and 0.86, respectively) (P < 0.01). The correlation among the ODI, RDQ, QDS and physical functioning scales of the SF-36 was -0.66, -0.62, and -0.69, respectively (P < 0.001). The correlation among the ODI, RDQ, and QDS and visual analog scale was 0.54, 0.36, and 0.46, respectively (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: The Persian versions of the ODI, RDQ, and QDS are reliable and valid instruments to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with LBP. They are simple and fast scales, and the use of them can be recommended in a clinical setting and future outcome studies in Iran.

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