JOURNAL ARTICLE

Initial resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock

Michael M Krausz
World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES 2006 April 27, 1: 14
16759354
The primary treatment of hemorrhagic shock is control of the source of bleeding as soon as possible and fluid replacement. In controlled hemorrhagic shock (CHS) where the source of bleeding has been occluded fluid replacement is aimed toward normalization of hemodynamic parameters. In uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock (UCHS) in which bleeding has temporarily stopped because of hypotension, vasoconstriction, and clot formation, fluid treatment is aimed at restoration of radial pulse, or restoration of sensorium or obtaining a blood pressure of 80 mmHg by aliquots of 250 ml of lactated Ringer's solution (hypotensive resuscitation). When evacuation time is shorter than one hour (usually urban trauma) immediate evacuation to a surgical facility is indicated after airway and breathing (A, B) have been secured ("scoop and run"). Precious time is not wasted by introducing an intravenous line. When expected evacuation time exceeds one hour an intravenous line is introduced and fluid treatment started before evacuation.Crystalloid solutions and blood transfusion are the mainstays of pre-hospital and in-hospital treatment of hemorrhagic shock. In the pre-hospital setting four types of fluid are presently recommended: crystalloid solutions, colloid solutions, hypertonic saline and oxygen-carrying blood substitutes. In unstable or unresponsive hemorrhagic shock surgical treatment is mandatory as soon as possible to control the source of bleeding.

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