Income distribution and mortality: implications from a comparison of individual-level analysis and multilevel analysis with Swedish data

Göran Henriksson, Peter Allebeck, Gunilla Ringbäck Weitoft, Dag Thelle
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2006, 34 (3): 287-94

BACKGROUND: This follow-up study analyses whether there is an association between income distribution in Swedish municipalities and risk of death from all causes in the total Swedish population aged 40-64 years and compares the results obtained with analyses performed on individual-level analysis and multilevel analysis.

METHODS: Individual-level data on social and economic circumstances were obtained from various official records and were linked to the national cause-of-death register. Analyses were made with two methods, an individual-level regression and a multilevel regression. The study population comprised all people 40-64 years of age in the 1990 Swedish census, altogether 2.57 million people in 284 municipalities.

RESULTS: The main results showed that in the individual-level regression the income distribution showed a positive and significant association (risk ratio = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.24-1.34) with higher mortality for those living in municipalities with higher income inequality. This association was not found in the multilevel regression analysis (RR = 1.03; 95%CI = 0.94-1.13).

CONCLUSION: There seems to be no association between income distribution and mortality in Sweden when considering the possibility of clustering in municipalities. Further studies on the relationship between income inequality and health should aim at elucidate processes within area-level units.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"