Relationship between the prevalence of depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Results of the SOPKARD Project

Katarzyna Gil, Piotr Radziłłowicz, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Anna Pakalska-Korcala, Kamil Chwojnicki, Jerzy Piwoński, Agata Ignaszewska-Wyrzykowska, Lukasz Załuga, Milena Mielczarek, Jerzy Landowski, Bogdan Wyrzykowski
Kardiologia Polska 2006, 64 (5): 464-9

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a newly recognised risk factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The results of many studies show that depression may contribute to the development of components of metabolic syndrome, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and glycaemic abnormalities. Thus it may have a significant impact on IHD development and worsen the course of an already established disorder.

AIM: Evaluation of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and depression among Sopot inhabitants aged 50 or 60 years.

METHODS: This study involved 795 consecutive inhabitants of Sopot (477 female and 318 male) who were invited in 2003 and 2004 to participate in screening examinations in the programme of primary prevention of arterial hypertension, diabetes and lipid abnormalities -- SOPKARD. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the NCEP ATP III guidelines. Beck's Depression Inventory was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms.

RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was recognised in 32% of participants (in 31% of women and in 33% of men). The distribution of particular elements of metabolic syndrome was as follows: elevated blood pressure was found in 63% of subjects (female -- 58%, male -- 70%), abnormal fasting glucose in 24% (female -- 21%, male -- 28%), visceral (abdominal) obesity in 33% (female -- 38%, male -- 26%), elevated triglyceride level in 34% (female - 28%, male - 42%) and decreased HDL level in 26% (female -- 28%, male -- 23%). Symptoms of depression were found in 37% of studied subjects (42% of females, 28% of males). Metabolic syndrome was observed more frequently in subjects with depressive symptoms compared to those without depressive symptoms in the whole group (35% vs 28%, p <0.05) and in males (44% vs 28%, p <.05). This difference was not statistically significant in females (31% vs 28%, ns). Visceral obesity was observed more frequently in males with depressive symptoms than in those without depressive symptoms (37% vs 21%, p <0.001). It was not observed in the whole group and in females. The studied females group with depression more often had a higher fasting serum glucose concentration when compared to those without depression (25% vs 18%, p<0.05). Such a relationship was not observed in the male group and whole group.

CONCLUSIONS: In the studied group of middle-aged subjects, especially among women, a high prevalence of depression symptoms was noted. Statistically significant correlations between the prevalence of depressive symptoms and visceral obesity in men and an elevated glucose level in women were shown.

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