REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Current prostate biopsy interpretation: criteria for cancer, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and use of immunostains.

CONTEXT: The past decade has brought major changes in prostate biopsy sampling, interpretation, and reporting.

OBJECTIVE: To summarize current information on diagnostic decision making, Gleason grading, "atypical" diagnoses, and use of immunostaining.

DATA SOURCES: Pertinent literature from 1985 to 2005 is reviewed, emphasizing recent findings.

CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis begins by evaluating a focus of atypical single-cell layer lined acini according to the 3 minimal diagnostic criteria for cancer: an infiltrative pattern, nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia, and prominent nucleoli. The Gleason score and linear extent or percent of each core containing cancer should be reported. Atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for malignancy designates foci that have either qualitative or quantitative limitations in atypia precluding a definite cancer diagnosis. It has about a 3% incidence as an isolated finding. Contemporary studies indicate a 39% predictive value for cancer on repeat biopsy. Isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia has a 3% to 14% incidence and predicts cancer on repeat biopsy in 23% of cases. Immunostaining for a marker of benign prostate (cytoplasmic keratin 34betaE12 or nuclear p63) and a marker of cancer (alpha-methylacyl coA racemase, clone P504S) may or may not resolve atypical small acinar proliferation diagnoses. Performance of 34betaE12 and P504S immunostains resolved 76% of atypical small acinar proliferation diagnoses per consensus of 3 urologic pathologists studied; a technical limitation is preservation of the focus in question on the levels used for immunostaining.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app