The expression of CSRP2 encoding the LIM domain protein CRP2 is mediated by TGF-beta in smooth muscle and hepatic stellate cells

Jens Herrmann, Erawan Borkham-Kamphorst, Ute Haas, Eddy Van de Leur, Mario F Fraga, Manel Esteller, Axel M Gressner, Ralf Weiskirchen
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2006 July 14, 345 (4): 1526-35
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine implicated in differentiation of smooth muscle cells and other mesenchymal-derived cells. During hepatic fibrogenesis, TGF-beta has a pivotal role in the initiation, promotion, and progression of transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblasts that play a central role in the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. Both, smooth muscle and activated hepatic stellate cells, express smooth muscle alpha-actin, the calponin-related protein SM22alpha, and CSRP2 encoding the cysteine- and glycine-rich LIM domain protein 2 (CRP2). The aim of the present study was to determine whether the expression of CSRP2 is influenced by TGF-beta. Stimulation as well as sequestering experiments demonstrated that TGF-beta markedly influences CSRP2 gene activity. Inhibition experiments using the ALK5 inhibitor SB-431542 further reveal that the transcriptional stimulation of the CSRP2 gene is mediated via the ALK5/Smad2/Smad3 signalling pathway. By use of bisulfite genomic analysis of CpG islands within the 5' regulatory regions we could exclude methylation-associated silencing, previously found to be responsible for the transcriptional inactivity of CSRP2 in a variety of human cancer cells and in a multistage carcinogenesis model, as a cause for CSRP2 inactivity in hepatocytes or fully transdifferentiated myofibroblasts.

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