Intranasal exposure to staphylococcal enterotoxin B elicits an acute systemic inflammatory response

Govindarajan Rajagopalan, Moon M Sen, Manisha Singh, Narayana S Murali, Karl A Nath, Koji Iijima, Hirohito Kita, Alexey A Leontovich, Unnikrishnan Gopinathan, Robin Patel, Chella S David
Shock 2006, 25 (6): 647-56
Staphylococcus aureus produces a variety of superantigen exotoxins, including staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Little is known regarding the pathogenesis of SEB entering through the intranasal route. Intranasal exposure to SEB might occur because of nasal packing following surgical procedure, biologic warfare, or even S. aureus colonization. We evaluated the local and systemic effects of intranasally delivered SEB using a series of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II transgenic mice as conventional mice expressing endogenous class II molecules mount a poor immune response to SEB. Gene expression profiling using microarrays showed robust up-regulation of genes involved in several proinflammatory pathways as early as 3 h post-intranasal challenge with SEB in HLA class II transgenic mice. This was accompanied by a several hundred-fold increase in serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, as well as MCP-1 in HLA class II transgenic mice but not in C57BL/6 mice; CD4 or CD8 T-cells independently contributed to the systemic cytokine response. Defective IL-12 or IL-4 receptor signaling significantly decreased or increased serum IFN-gamma, respectively. Intranasal exposure to SEB resulted in neutrophil influx into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and caused expansion of both CD4 and CD8 T-cells expressing TCR V beta 8 in the spleen. This was accompanied by mononuclear cell infiltration in the liver reminiscent of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Thus, we have shown, for the first time, that intranasal administration of SEB can cause systemic immune activation.

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