Biomechanical reconstruction of the hip: a randomised study comparing total hip resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty

J Girard, M Lavigne, P-A Vendittoli, A G Roy
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume 2006, 88 (6): 721-6
We have compared the biomechanical nature of the reconstruction of the hip in conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) and surface replacement arthroplasty (SRA) in a randomised study involving 120 patients undergoing unilateral primary hip replacement. The contralateral hip was used as a control. Post-operatively, the femoral offset was significantly increased with THA (mean 5.1 mm; -2.8 to 11.6) and decreased with SRA (mean -3.3 mm; -8.9 to 8.2). Femoral offset was restored within sd 4 mm in 14 (25%) of those with THA and in 28 (57%) of the patients receiving SRA (p < 0.001). In the THA group, the leg was lengthened by a mean of 2.6 mm (-6.04 to +12.9), whereas it was shortened by a mean of 1.9 mm (-7.1 to +2.05) in the SRA group, compared with the contralateral side. Leg-length inequality was restored within sd 4 mm in 42 (86%) of the SRA and 33 (60%) of the THA patients. The radiological parameters of acetabular reconstruction were similar in both groups. Restoration of the normal proximal femoral anatomy was more precise with SRA. The enhanced stability afforded by the use of a large-diameter femoral head avoided over-lengthening of the limb or increased offset to improve soft-tissue tension as occurs sometimes in THA. In a subgroup of patients with significant pre-operative deformity, restoration of the normal hip anatomy with lower pre-operative femoral offset or significant shortening of the leg was still possible with SRA.

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