Dynamic targeting image-guided radiotherapy

Calvin Huntzinger, Peter Munro, Scott Johnson, Mika Miettinen, Corey Zankowski, Greg Ahlstrom, Reto Glettig, Reto Filliberti, Wolfgang Kaissl, Martin Kamber, Martin Amstutz, Lionel Bouchet, Dan Klebanov, Hassan Mostafavi, Richard Stark
Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists 2006, 31 (2): 113-25
Volumetric imaging and planning for 3-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) have highlighted the need to the oncology community to better understand the geometric uncertainties inherent in the radiotherapy delivery process, including setup error (interfraction) as well as organ motion during treatment (intrafraction). This has ushered in the development of emerging technologies and clinical processes, collectively referred to as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The goal of IGRT is to provide the tools needed to manage both inter- and intrafraction motion to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery. Like IMRT, IGRT is a process involving all steps in the radiotherapy treatment process, including patient immobilization, computed tomography (CT) simulation, treatment planning, plan verification, patient setup verification and correction, delivery, and quality assurance. The technology and capability of the Dynamic Targeting IGRT system developed by Varian Medical Systems is presented. The core of this system is a Clinac or Trilogy accelerator equipped with a gantry-mounted imaging system known as the On-Board Imager (OBI). This includes a kilovoltage (kV) x-ray source, an amorphous silicon kV digital image detector, and 2 robotic arms that independently position the kV source and imager orthogonal to the treatment beam. A similar robotic arm positions the PortalVision megavoltage (MV) portal digital image detector, allowing both to be used in concert. The system is designed to support a variety of imaging modalities. The following applications and how they fit in the overall clinical process are described: kV and MV planar radiographic imaging for patient repositioning, kV volumetric cone beam CT imaging for patient repositioning, and kV planar fluoroscopic imaging for gating verification. Achieving image-guided motion management throughout the radiation oncology process requires not just a single product, but a suite of integrated products to manipulate all patient data, including images, efficiently and effectively.

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