Impact of prostate-specific antigen level and prostate volume as predictors of efficacy in photoselective vaporization prostatectomy: analysis and results of an ongoing prospective multicentre study at 3 years

Alexis E Te, Terrence R Malloy, Barry S Stein, James C Ulchaker, Unyime O Nseyo, Mahmood A Hai
BJU International 2006, 97 (6): 1229-33

UNLABELLED: In a multicentre study from the USA, 3-year results of the high-power KTP laser prostatectomy are presented. The authors used preoperative PSA level as a marker of prostate volume and assessed its potential predictive value on the level of clinical efficacy for treating symptomatic BPH. They found that the overall results from the technique were positive and durable, and suggested that there was a significant difference in efficacy between patients presenting with a total PSA of <6 or >6 ng/mL. Many patients who have had a radical prostatectomy are followed for a prolonged period and several observations are presented from an Italian study of urinary incontinence. The authors present their detailed results, finding a considerable trend in incontinence and anastomotic stricture, which decreased over time.

OBJECTIVE: To report the 3-year results and analyse whether total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels and prostate volume before treatment can predict the level of clinical efficacy of photoselective vaporization prostatectomy (PVP) for treating obstructive benign prostatic disease, as high-power potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser prostatectomy was previously shown to be safe and to efficiently vaporize prostatic adenoma secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with minimal bleeding and morbidity.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: From October 2001 to January 2003, 139 men (mean age 67.7 years, sd 8.7) diagnosed with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to BPH, had PVP with an average 80 W of KTP laser energy, at six investigational centres. A subanalysis evaluating each patient for tPSA and prostate volume before PVP was conducted, with a long-term assessment of the primary efficacy outcomes at 3 years after PVP. Each patient was assigned to one of two subgroups according to the tPSA level (group 1, < or = 6.0 ng/mL; group 2 > or = 6.1 ng/mL) and evaluated separately. Each subgroup was assessed for changes from baseline in American Urological Symptom Index (AUA SI) score, quality of life (QoL) score, peak urinary flow rate (Q(max)), prostate volume, and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) at 1, 2 and 3 years after PVP.

RESULTS: All tPSA subgroups had a sustained improvement in all efficacy outcomes maintained through the 3 years. There was a statistically significant difference in the level of improvement between groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.05) in AUA SI and Q(max) at 1, 2 and 3 years. The mean (sd) prostate volume for group 1 was 48.3 (16.7) mL (87 men), and was 83.1 (30.6) mL (52 men) in group 2. The mean percentage improvement in the AUA SI at 1, 2 and 3 years in group 1 and 2, respectively, was 86%, 92% and 85%, and 69%, 74% and 76%; the corresponding percentage improvement in Q(max) was 194%, 185% and 179%, and 124%, 145% and 139%, respectively. Overall treatment efficacy in all patients evaluated showed a mean 83%, 79%, 71% and 165% improvement in AUA SI, QoL, PVR and Q(max), respectively. Adverse events were minimal and the re-treatment rate was 4.3%.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is a significant difference in efficacy in patients with a tPSA of < or = 6.0 ng/mL or > or = 6.1 ng/mL before PVP. However, the overall results achieved with PVP were very positive and durable to 3 years, irrespective of tPSA level and prostate volume.

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