Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

C A Clark, J Gardiner, M I McBurney, S Anderson, L J Weatherspoon, D N Henry, N G Hord
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006, 60 (9): 1122-9

OBJECTIVE: We tested the relative importance of a low-glycemic response versus a high glycemic response breakfast meal on postprandial serum glucose, insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) responses after consumption of a standardized mid-day meal in adult individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM).

DESIGN: Following an overnight fast of 8-10 h, a randomized crossover intervention using control and test meals was conducted over a 3-week-period. A fasting baseline measurement and postprandial measurements at various time intervals after the breakfast and mid-day meal were taken.

SUBJECTS: Forty-five Type 2 DM subjects completed the requirements and were included in the study results.

INTERVENTIONS: Two different breakfast meals were administered during the intervention: (A) a high glycemic load breakfast meal consisting of farina (kJ 1833; carbohydrate (CHO) 78 g and psylium soluble fiber 0 g), (B) a low-glycemic load breakfast meal consisting of a fiber-loop cereal (kJ 1515; CHO 62 g and psyllium soluble fiber 6.6 g). A standardized lunch was provided approximately 4 h after breakfast. Blood plasma concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) values for glucose, insulin and FFA were measured in response to the breakfast and mid-day lunch. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software (8.02). Comparisons between diets were based on adjusted Bonferroni t-tests.

RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, Breakfast B had significantly lower area under the curve (AUC) values for plasma glucose and insulin compared to Breakfast A (P<0.05) (95% confidence level). The AUC values for FFA were higher for Breakfast B than for Breakfast A (P<0.05) (95% confidence level). Post-lunch analyses indicated similar glucose responses for the two breakfast types. Insulin AUC values for Breakfasts B were significantly lower than Breakfast A (P<0.05) (95% confidence level). The AUC values for FFA were unaffected by breakfast type.

CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that ingesting a low-glycemic load meal containing psyllium soluble fiber at breakfast significantly improves the breakfast postprandial glycemic, insulinemic and FFA responses in adults with Type 2 DM. These data revealed no residual postprandial effect of the psyllium soluble fiber breakfast meal beyond the second meal consumed. Thus, there was no evidence of an improvement postprandially in the glycemic, insulinemic and FFA responses after the consumption of the lunch meal.

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