Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
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Current challenges in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and prostatitis.

Serious urinary tract infections (UTIs) and acute bacterial prostatitis in adults cause significant morbidity and economic burden. Chronic bacterial prostatitis is a rather rare condition seen in urological practice, however, in certain occasions difficult to treat. In this paper, we review the bacterial etiologies and the resistance patterns found in adults with serious UTIs and bacterial prostatitis, and discuss considerations for selecting optimal antimicrobial therapy. The role of fluoroquinolones as targeted therapy for serious UTIs is highlighted. The use of effective antimicrobial therapy is the foundation of management of serious UTIs and bacterial prostatitis. Selection of the optimal antimicrobial agent must take into account patient-specific factors; infection characteristics (e.g., severity, community- vs. institutional- or hospital-acquired, need for IV agent, UTI, prostatitis); local resistance pattern; pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles; and cost. Fluoroquinolones are among the alternatives for empirical antibiotic treatment of serious UTIs and acute bacterial prostatitis. In serious UTIs activity of the antimicrobial agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa needs to be taken into account. In chronic bacterial prostatitis fluoroquinolones are the first choice because of their favourable pharmacokinetic properties at the site of infection. Targeted antimicrobial therapy--emphasising the correct antibacterial spectrum and correct dosage--is likely to provide important benefits, such as reduced morbidity and associated costs, reduced emergence of resistance and maintenance of class efficacy.

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