Effects of Tiron, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid, on human promyelotic HL-60 leukemia cell differentiation and death

Jin Sik Kim, Eun Wie Cho, Hai Won Chung, In Gyu Kim
Toxicology 2006 June 1, 223 (1): 36-45
Tiron, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzene disulfonic acid, has been known to be a widely used antioxidant to rescue ROS-evoked cell death and a non-toxic chelator to alleviate an acute metal overload. In this study, we showed that Tiron is a potent inducer of cell differentiation and apoptotic cell death in human promyelotic HL-60 leukemia cell. At a low level of concentration (<0.5mM), Tiron caused HL-60 cells to induce differentiation-related alterations such as the increase of CD11b and CD14 expression or chromatin condensation. Hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) was also increased at mRNA and protein level, and thus the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, which is a downstream target of HIF-1alpha and acts as a critical factor for granulocytic differentiation was increased. High dose of Tiron (>0.5mM) induced severe DNA damage in HL-60 cells, as measured by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and the comet assay. Consequently, high dose of Tiron led to apoptotic cell death, which showed the DNA fragmentation, the caspase activation and the unbalance between antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) and proapoptotic proteins (Bax). However, an exogenous supplement of iron (FeCl(3)) reversed all of these effects, the cell differentiation and the apoptotic cell death. Therefore, these results suggest that Tiron-mediated differentiation and cell death result from the disturbance of iron metabolism.


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