Delayed gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with chronic myocarditis presenting with heart failure or recurrent arrhythmias

Francesco De Cobelli, Maurizio Pieroni, Antonio Esposito, Cristina Chimenti, Elena Belloni, Renata Mellone, Tamara Canu, Gianluca Perseghin, Carlo Gaudio, Attilio Maseri, Andrea Frustaci, Alessandro Del Maschio
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2006 April 18, 47 (8): 1649-54

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CE-CMR) in detecting chronic myocarditis (CM).

BACKGROUND: Chronic myocarditis represents a common evolution of acute myocarditis. Although CE-CMR has been revealed to be effective in identifying areas of myocardial damage in acute myocarditis, its role in the diagnosis of chronic myocardial inflammation has not yet been investigated.

METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CM underwent CE-CMR and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). Chronic myocarditis was defined by the presence of: 1) chronic (>6 months) heart failure symptoms and/or repetitive ventricular arrhythmias; 2) no history of recent flu-like symptoms or infections; and 3) histologic evidence of active myocarditis (AM) or borderline myocarditis (BM) according to Dallas criteria. Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance included black-blood T2-weighted (BBT2w) images without and with fat saturation and delayed three-dimensional T1 turbo field-echo inversion-recovery sequences obtained 15 min after gadolinium injection.

RESULTS: Histology showed AM in 14 patients and BM in 9 patients. FatSat BBT2w revealed the presence of edema in five (36%) patients with AM but not in BM patients. Areas of late enhancement (LE) were observed in 12 (84%) subjects with AM and in 4 (44%) cases with BM. A mid-wall LE pattern was the most frequent finding in both groups while a subepicardial distribution of LE was observed only in patients with AM.

CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance identified areas of myocardial inflammation in up to 70% of patients with biopsy-proven CM. We suggest that CE-CMR may be a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool in patients with CM, and it may indicate and even guide the execution of left ventricular EMB with relevant prognostic and therapeutic implications.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"