Effect of diabetes drug counseling by pharmacist, diabetic disease booklet and special medication containers on glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial

Suchat Suppapitiporn, Busba Chindavijak, Saowapa Onsanit
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2005, 88 Suppl 4: S134-41

BACKGROUND: type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to increase in prevalence worldwide. Many factors have been cited as contributing to compliance, such as family and social support, education, number of tablets per dose, frequency of administration and health care provider communication. Toward these goals, the present study was developed to measure the effect offactors on glycemic control such as diabetes education by pharmacists, a diabetes disease booklet and special medication containers.

MATERIAL AND METHOD: A total of 360 volunteers with type 2 DM patients were recruited, participants were simple randomized to control 180 and intervention 180 patients. Which intervention categorized to 4 groups; all intervention groups received diabetes drug counseling by a pharmacist, one group received plus a diabetes booklet, one received plus special medical containers and the last group received all of them. The interventions were done at the 1st time of visit. Both the control and intervention groups were monitored for fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c at 0, 3, 6 months and glycemic level in both groups was compared.

RESULTS: After 3 months, mean fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c decreased wiih the intervention group vs. control group (152.36 +/- 39.73 to 131.52 +/- 35.22 mg%) and (150.16 +/- 41.78 to 153.98 +/- 47.95 mg%) respectively; (p < 0.001). HbA1c level 8.16 +/- 1.44 to 7.72 +/- 1.26 vs 8.01 +/- 1.51 to 8.38 +/- 1.46 respectively; (p < 0.001). After 6 months, mean fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c decreased with the intervention group vs. control group (152.36 +/- 39.73 to 145.20 +/- 46.07 mg%) and (150.16 +/- 41.78 to 159.16 +/- 54.90 mg%) respectively; (p < 0.013). HbA1c level 8.16 +/- 1.44 to 7.91 +/- 1.27 vs. 8.01 +/- 1.51 to 8.80 +/- 1.36 respectively; (p < 0.001). The most favorable glycemic outcome was the group that received all of the interventions; mean FPG was reduced from 147.46 +/- 36.07 to 125.38 +/- 31.12 mg% (p < 0.000) in 1nd visit (3 months later) and still reducing effect on the 2nd visit (6 month later) mean FPG from 147.46 +/- 36.07 to 130.21 +/- 33.96 mg% (p < 0.016) also the same way in HbA 1c level. The group that received only drug counseling by pharmacist had no significant reduction in FPG and HbA1c. (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Drug counseling by a pharmacist has little beneficial effect on diabetes management outcome compared to the diabetes booklet and special drug container. To improve glycemic control of type 2 DM is to integrate self-management in daily life, wide a variety of education, drug taken behavior and health care provider available communication produce improvement in patient management and is somewhat better when used in combination.

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