JOURNAL ARTICLE

GRO-alpha regulation in airway smooth muscle by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha: role of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases

Razao Issa, Shaoping Xie, Kang-Yun Lee, Rex D Stanbridge, Pankaj Bhavsar, Maria B Sukkar, Kian Fan Chung
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 2006, 291 (1): L66-74
16617094
Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) are a source of inflammatory chemokines that may propagate airway inflammatory responses. We investigated the production of the CXC chemokine growth-related oncogene protein-alpha (GRO-alpha) from ASMC induced by cytokines and the role of MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways. ASMC were cultured from human airways, grown to confluence, and exposed to cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha after growth arrest. GRO-alpha release, measured by ELISA, was increased by >50-fold after IL-1beta (0.1 ng/ml) or 5-fold after TNF-alpha (1 ng/ml) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GRO-alpha release was not affected by the T helper type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. IL-1beta and TNF-alpha also induced GRO-alpha mRNA expression. Supernatants from IL-1beta-stimulated ASMC were chemotactic for neutrophils; this effect was inhibited by anti-GRO-alpha blocking antibody. AS-602868, an inhibitor of IKK-2, and PD-98059, an inhibitor of ERK, inhibited GRO-alpha release and mRNA expression, whereas SP-600125, an inhibitor of JNK, reduced GRO-alpha release without effect on mRNA expression. SB-203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, had no effect. AS-602868 but not PD-98059 or SP-600125 inhibited p65 DNA-binding induced by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. By chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha enhanced p65 binding to the GRO-alpha promoter, which was inhibited by AS-602868. IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-stimulated expression of GRO-alpha from ASMC is regulated by independent pathways involving NF-kappaB activation and ERK and JNK pathways. GRO-alpha released from ASMC participates in neutrophil chemotaxis.

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