Hyponatremia with hypoxia: effects on brain adaptation, perfusion, and histology in rodents

J C Ayus, D Armstrong, A I Arieff
Kidney International 2006, 69 (8): 1319-25
Hypoxia appears to be a prominent component of brain damage among patients with hyponatremic encephalopathy. Effects of hypoxia on brain in the presence of hyponatremia are not known. In order to evaluate the contributions of hypoxia to brain damage, three separate experiments were conducted in three groups of rodents. Experiment I evaluated the effects of hypoxia and acute (< 4 h) hyponatremia (plasma Na < 120 mmol/l) on brain adaptation in rabbits. Experiment II evaluated the effects of hypoxia and chronic (4 days) hyponatremia on cerebral perfusion in rats. Experiment III evaluated the effects of hypoxia and chronic hyponatremia on brain histology in rats. In experiment I, rabbits with acute hyponatremia demonstrated brain adaptation with significant falls in brain Na content (by 14.2%, P < 0.01) and osmolality (by 8.3%, P < 0.01), and a rise in brain water (by 10.6%, P < 0.05). Rabbits with combined hypoxia and hyponatremia failed to demonstrate brain adaptation. In experiment II, rats with chronic hyponatremia plus hypoxia had a decrease in cerebral perfusion index by more than 50% (P < 0.01). In experiment III, 23% of hypoxic rats had brain lesions, which were in the cerebellum, thalamus, reticular formation, and basal ganglia. Hyponatremia without hypoxia resulted in no brain lesions. Hypoxia in normonatremic animals results in cerebral edema and histopathologic lesions similar to those found in rats whose plasma Na was overcorrected. Hypoxia in hyponatremic animals aggravates cerebral edema, impairs brain adaptation, and decreases cerebral perfusion.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"

We want to hear from doctors like you!

Take a second to answer a survey question.