JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Both Th1 and Th2 chemokines are elevated in sera of patients with autoimmune blistering diseases.

Although chemokines are critical elements for the selective attraction and activation of various leukocyte subsets in the inflammatory process, there are few findings concerning T helper (Th) 1 or Th2 chemokines in autoimmune blistering disease (ABD). To determine whether serum levels of chemokines that are preferentially chemotactic for Th1 (monokine induced by IFN-gamma (MIG/CXCL9)) and Th2 (thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22)) cells were elevated and whether they correlated with the clinical features in patients with ABD. Serum chemokine levels were examined using ELISA in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n=19), pemphigus foliaceous (PF, n=14), or bullous pemphigoid (BP, n=27) and normal controls (n=20). Serum MIG levels were significantly higher in patients with PV, PF, or BP than those in the control subjects. Serum levels of TARC and MDC were also significantly elevated in patients with PV, PF, or BP relative to the normal controls. Among the ABD subgroups, the levels of each chemokine tended to be higher in BP patients than in PV patients. Furthermore, serum TARC levels correlated positively with serum IgE levels in patients with ABD. Levels of TARC, MDC, and MIG were significantly decreased after treatment when the skin lesions disappeared in these patients. Furthermore, serum MIG levels correlated positively with serum levels of TARC and MDC in the ABD patients. These results suggest that both a Th1 chemoattractant MIG and Th2 chemoattractants, TARC and MDC, cooperatively play a role in the development of ABD.

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