DAPT-induced intracellular accumulations of longer amyloid beta-proteins: further implications for the mechanism of intramembrane cleavage by gamma-secretase

Sousuke Yagishita, Maho Morishima-Kawashima, Yu Tanimura, Shoichi Ishiura, Yasuo Ihara
Biochemistry 2006 March 28, 45 (12): 3952-60
Gamma-secretase cleaves the transmembrane domain of beta-amyloid precursor protein at multiple sites. These are referred to as gamma-, zeta-, and epsilon-cleavages. We showed previously that DAPT, a potent dipeptide gamma-secretase inhibitor, caused differential accumulations of longer amyloid beta-proteins (Abetas) (Abeta43 and Abeta46) in CHO cells that are induced to express the beta C-terminal fragment (CTF). To learn more about the cleavage mechanism by gamma-secretase, CHO cell lines coexpressing betaCTF and wild-type or mutant presenilin (PS) 1/2 were generated and treated with DAPT. In all cell lines treated with DAPT, as the levels of Abeta40 decreased, Abeta46 accumulated to varying extents. In wild-type PS1 or M146L mutant PS1 cells, substantial amounts of Abeta43 and Abeta46 accumulated. In contrast, this was not the case with wild-type PS2 cells. In M233T mutant PS1 cells, significant amounts of Abeta46 and Abeta48 accumulated differentially, whereas in N141I mutant PS2 cells, large amounts of Abeta45 accumulated concomitantly with a large decrease in Abeta42 levels. Most interestingly, in G384A mutant PS1 cells, there were no significant accumulations of longer Abetas except for Abeta46. Abeta40 was very susceptible to DAPT, but other Abetas were variably resistant. Complicated suppression and accumulation patterns by DAPT may be explained by stepwise processing of betaCTF from a zeta- or epsilon-cleavage site to a gamma-cleavage site and its preferential suppression of gamma-cleavage over zeta- or epsilon-cleavage.

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