Influence of curing methods and matrix type on the marginal seal of class II resin-based composite restorations in vitro

Norbert Hofmann, Alexander Hunecke
Operative Dentistry 2006, 31 (1): 97-105
This study determined the influence of light curing protocols and matrix type on the margin quality and marginal seal of Class II resin-based composite restorations. In extracted human molars, box-shaped MOD cavities with 1 mm wide interproximal bevels were prepared with cervical margins located at least 1 mm coronal to the cemento-enamel junction. The prepared teeth were mounted in a jig featuring artificial training teeth that served as adjacent teeth. A contoured sectional metal matrix band was placed in one interproximal area, and a section of a contoured transparent matrix band was placed in the opposite interproximal area. Both were kept in position using wooden wedges. After etching (35% H3PO4 gel) and the application of a three-step etch & rinse dentin adhesive (Optibond FL, Kerr), a thin layer of flowable resin-based composite (Revolution, Kerr) was applied to the interproximal margins. The cavities were restored by placing one horizontal and two oblique increments of a fine hybrid resin-based composite (Herculite XRV, Kerr). The curing protocols included one standard halogen protocol (Elipar Trilight, 3M ESPE, 40 seconds @ 800 mW/cm2), 3 halogen soft-start protocols (Step: Elipar HiLight, 3M ESPE; 10 seconds @ 150 mW/cm2, 30 seconds @ 850 mW/cm2; Ramp: Elipar TriLight, 3M ESPE, 5 seconds @ 100 mW/cm2, exponential increase for 10 seconds, 25 seconds @ 800 mW/cm2; Pulse delay: VIP Light, BISCO, cervical increment: 10 seconds @ 500 mW/cm2, occlusal increments: 3 seconds @ 200 mW/cm2, final irradiation after a 5 minute interval: 30 seconds @ mW/cm2) and 2 plasma arc high intensity protocols (PAC: Lightning Cure, ADT, 10 seconds @ 1400 mW/cm2; APO: Apollo 95E, DMDS, 2 x 3 seconds @ 1570 mW/cm2). The restored teeth were stored in 0.9% saline at 37 degrees C for 4 weeks and submitted to thermal cycling [TC] with 2500 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C after 2 weeks. The margin quality before and after TC was analyzed in SEM using the replica technique, and the marginal seal was determined using the dye penetration test (50% AgNO3, 2 hours) at the end of the study. The matrix type did not significantly influence the quality and seal of the respective margins. For the complete restoration margin, one of the high intensity protocols (APO) produced a higher percentage of "continuous margin" compared to pulse delay irradiation after TC and lower percentages of "marginal opening" compared to halogen standard irradiation before and after TC. Halogen step irradiation produced a superior marginal seal compared to pulse delay curing at the occlusal margins; equivalent results were observed for all curing modes at the cervical margins. Neither a general advantage of soft-start irradiation nor a general disadvantage of high intensity curing was confirmed.

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