Clinical spectrum of gross hematuria in pediatric patients

Trisha Youn, Howard Trachtman, Bernard Gauthier
Clinical Pediatrics 2006, 45 (2): 135-41
Although isolated gross hematuria is a disturbing symptom, there have been few studies of this finding in pediatric patients. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the associated symptoms and causes of gross hematuria in children and adolescents who presented with this problem as their major clinical manifestation. It also determined the long-term outcome of patients in whom no etiology was found. A retrospective review was performed on the medical records of 100 consecutive patients referred for evaluation of gross hematuria between 1992 and 1999. The etiology was determined based on standard urinalysis methods, clinical laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Patients with gross hematuria in whom an etiology was not found were followed up through 2001. Of the 100 patient records reviewed, 18 were excluded because the clinical evaluation was incomplete. The remaining 82 patients (59 M: 23 F) had a mean age of 9.2 +/- 5.0 years. Glomerular gross hematuria was found in 24 patients. A cause was found in all of these patients, most commonly immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (n=13) and Alport syndrome (n=6). Nonglomerular gross hematuria was found in 56 patients, and the most common etiologies were hypercalciuria (n=9), urethrorrhagia (n=8), and hemorrhagic cystitis (n=7). No etiology was found in 26 patients with nonglomerular gross hematuria. No diagnosis was made in the case of 2 patients whose hematuria could not be defined as glomerular or nonglomerular. Telephone follow-up was performed in 18 of these children 4.0 +/- 3.2 years (range: 1-9 years) after the initial evaluation and showed that only 3 of these patients had had recurrences of gross hematuria. They and all of the other patients remained otherwise well. The urinalysis, including microscopic examination, was the most important diagnostic test in a patient with isolated gross hematuria. Nonglomerular problems were more than twice as common as glomerular diseases as a cause of isolated gross hematuria in pediatric patients The distribution of the etiologies of gross hematuria was consistent with previous studies. Although nearly half of the patients with nonglomerular gross hematuria could not be given a diagnosis, their long-term prognosis appeared to be good.


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