JOURNAL ARTICLE
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Redefining parapharyngeal space infections.

OBJECTIVES: Our intent was to review the clinical signs, computed tomography (CT) scans, treatment, and outcome of parapharyngeal space infections (PPIs), and to define 2 types of infections of the parapharyngeal space (PPS) according to the location of the infectious process.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized in a tertiary university hospital with a diagnosis of PPI, abscess, or deep neck abscess between 1988 and 2004. Files and CT scans were reviewed after classification into 2 groups: 1) infection located in the posterior part of the PPS (PostPPI); and 2) infection located in the anterior part of the PPS (AntPPI).

RESULTS: Twenty-two patients had a PostPPI; their ages ranged from 10 months to 24 years. Five patients underwent surgical drainage, and 17 others were treated solely with intravenous antibiotic therapy. No pus was found during surgery in 2 patients. The average time of hospitalization was 10 days. Only 1 complication (aspiration pneumonia) was observed. Seven patients had an AntPPI; their ages ranged from 1.5 years to 65 years. All patients underwent surgical drainage, and pus was detected in all cases. The average time of hospitalization was 35 days. Complications (septic shock, respiratory arrest, mediastinitis, pleural empyema, pericarditis) were observed in 4 patients.

CONCLUSIONS: The term "parapharyngeal abscess" was assigned long before the CT scan era, and was based on physical examination and plain film radiology. In essence, the entity PPS "abscess" or "infection" is composed of 2 different disorders. Infection located in the posterior part of the PPS with no invasion into the parapharyngeal fat and with no extension into other cervical spaces except the adjacent retropharyngeal space may be termed posterior parapharyngeal infection or parapharyngeal lymphadenitis. This is a relatively benign condition, and nonsurgical treatment should be considered. Infection involving the parapharyngeal fat may be termed parapharyngeal abscess or deep neck abscess. Diffusion into the mediastinum and other severe complications are frequent. Urgent surgical drainage is therefore mandatory.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app