Novel nanoliposomal CPT-11 infused by convection-enhanced delivery in intracranial tumors: pharmacology and efficacy

Charles O Noble, Michal T Krauze, Daryl C Drummond, Yoji Yamashita, Ryuta Saito, Mitchel S Berger, Dmitri B Kirpotin, Krystof S Bankiewicz, John W Park
Cancer Research 2006 March 1, 66 (5): 2801-6
We hypothesized that combining convection-enhanced delivery (CED) with a novel, highly stable nanoparticle/liposome containing CPT-11 (nanoliposomal CPT-11) would provide a dual drug delivery strategy for brain tumor treatment. Following CED in rat brains, tissue retention of nanoliposomal CPT-11 was greatly prolonged, with >20% injected dose remaining at 12 days for all doses. Tissue residence was dose dependent, with doses of 60 microg (3 mg/mL), 0.8 mg (40 mg/mL), and 1.6 mg (80 mg/mL) resulting in tissue half-life (t(1/2)) of 6.7, 10.7, and 19.7 days, respectively. In contrast, CED of free CPT-11 resulted in rapid drug clearance (tissue t(1/2) = 0.3 day). At equivalent CED doses, nanoliposomal CPT-11 increased area under the time-concentration curve by 25-fold and tissue t(1/2) by 22-fold over free CPT-11; CED in intracranial U87 glioma xenografts showed even longer tumor retention (tissue t(1/2) = 43 days). Plasma levels were undetectable following CED of nanoliposomal CPT-11. Importantly, prolonged exposure to nanoliposomal CPT-11 resulted in no measurable central nervous system (CNS) toxicity at any dose tested (0.06-1.6 mg/rat), whereas CED of free CPT-11 induced severe CNS toxicity at 0.4 mg/rat. In the intracranial U87 glioma xenograft model, a single CED infusion of nanoliposomal CPT-11 at 1.6 mg resulted in significantly improved median survival (>100 days) compared with CED of control liposomes (19.5 days; P = 4.9 x 10(-5)) or free drug (28.5 days; P = 0.011). We conclude that CED of nanoliposomal CPT-11 greatly prolonged tissue residence while also substantially reducing toxicity, resulting in a highly effective treatment strategy in preclinical brain tumor models.

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