Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents endothelin-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro through the suppression of TGF-beta 1 and phosphorylated JNK

Nobutake Shimojo, Subrina Jesmin, Sohel Zaedi, Seiji Maeda, Masaaki Soma, Kazutaka Aonuma, Iwao Yamaguchi, Takashi Miyauchi
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2006, 291 (2): H835-45
The cardiovascular benefit of fish oil in humans and experimental animals has been reported. Endothelin (ET)-1 is a well-known cardiac hypertrophic factor. However, although many studies link a fish oil extract, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), to cardiac protection, the effects of EPA on cardiac hypertrophy and underlying mechanism(s) are unclear. The present study investigated whether EPA prevents ET-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the potential pathways likely to underlie such an effect were also investigated. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from neonatal rat heart, cultured for 3 days, and then treated for 24 h with vehicle only (control), treated with 0.1 nM ET-1 only, or pretreated with 10 microM EPA and then treated with 0.1 nM ET-1. The cells were harvested, and changes in cell surface area, protein synthesis, expression of a cytoskeletal (alpha-actinin) protein, and cell signaling were analyzed. ET-1 induced a 97% increase in cardiomyocyte surface area, a 72% increase in protein synthesis rate, and an increase in expression of alpha-actinin and signaling molecule [transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and c-Jun]. Development of these ET-1-induced cellular changes was attenuated by EPA. Moreover, the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes showed a 1.5- and a 1.7-fold increase in mRNA expression of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, the classical molecular markers of cardiac hypertrophy, respectively; these changes were also suppressed by EPA. Here we show that ET-1 induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and expression of hypertrophic markers, possibly mediated by JNK and TGF-beta 1 signaling pathways. These ET-1-induced effects were blocked by EPA, a major fish oil ingredient, suggesting that fish oil may have beneficial protective effects on cardiac hypertrophy.

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