[Prevention of fetomaternal rhesus-D allo-immunization. Practical aspects]

A Cortey, Y Brossard
Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 2006, 35 (1): 1S123-1S130
RhD prophylaxis concerns RhD negative women, who are non-sensitized against D antigen during and at the end of their pregnancy with a RhD positive child. RhD prophylaxis includes targeted prophylaxis (prevention of anti-D immunization after feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH) induced by prenatal events and delivery) and routine antenatal D prophylaxis (prevention of anti-D immunization resulting from spontaneous FMH in the last trimester of pregnancy). Targeted prophylaxis should be applied regardless of the gestational age and a dose of 100microg anti-D is usually enough (200microg is the lowest dosage currently available in France). However it is recommended to quantify the volume of feto-maternal hemorrhage to avoid administration of a dose of IgG anti-D less than 20microg per ml of fetal red blood cells. Efficacy of prophylaxis relies also on the delay between the sensitizing event and the injection of anti-D, delay should be less than 72 hours. Intravenous administration of anti-D allows immediate neutralization of D positive fetal red blood cells and should be, if possible, preferred to intramuscular administration (IM). After a first injection of anti-D, if repetition of potential sensitizing events occurs, abstention of prophylaxis is possible depending on the previous administrated dose (protection lasts 6 weeks for 200microg and 9 weeks for 300microg) and the amount of feto-maternal hemorrhage. For routine prophylaxis of the third trimester, 300microg of anti-D should be proposed IM at 281+/-GW. Abstention of Rh prophylaxis is possible if the alleged father is certified RhD negative or if the fetal RhD genotype is confirmed negative. At delivery, RhD phenotype of the newborn should be determined even if RhD fetal genotype is known. Maternal blood should be drawn for quantification of feto-maternal transfusion at least 30 min after delivery is completed.

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