Biventricular repair in double outlet right ventricle: surgical results based on the STS-EACTS International Nomenclature classification

John H Artrip, Henning Sauer, David N Campbell, Max B Mitchell, Christoph Haun, Melvin C Almodovar, Viktor Hraska, Francois Lacour-Gayet
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 2006, 29 (4): 545-50

BACKGROUND: The STS-EACTS International Nomenclature for Congenital Heart Surgery (CHS) defines four anatomic subtypes of double outlet right ventricle (DORV) based on the relationship of the ventricular septal defect (VSD) with the great vessels and the presence of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO). We reviewed our experience with DORV patients and two ventricles that underwent repair, applying this nomenclature.

METHODS: Between January 2000 and January 2005, 50 patients with DORV and two viable ventricles underwent surgical intervention: 44 patients had biventricular repair, 3 had 1.5 ventricular repair, 2 underwent a Fontan, and 1 died prior to corrective surgery. Median age at repair was 9.1 months (range: 4D-4Y). Eighteen patients (36%) were DORV-Fallot (including 5 with AVSD and heterotaxy), 9 (18%) were DORV-TGA (Taussig-Bing), 12 (24%) were DORV-VSD, and 11 (22%) were DORV non-committed VSD. Corrective surgery included 35 repairs with a VSD-aorta baffle+/-RVOTO procedure and 12 arterial switches with a VSD-PA baffle (9 Taussig-Bing and 3 DORV-ncVSD). Associated procedures included 13 VSD enlargements, 8 subaortic resections, 9 arch repairs, 5 AVSD repairs, and 7 others.

RESULTS: There were three deaths in the 50 patients studied (overall mortality of 6%). Excluding one patient that died prior to corrective surgery and the two patients palliated with a Fontan procedure, the actual surgical mortality for a corrective repair was 4.3% (2/47 patients). Two surgical deaths occurred following, respectively, one repair of a Taussig-Bing with an interrupted arch and a Swiss cheese VSD and one repair of ncVSD-type with pulmonary atresia that had undergone a previous cavo-pulmonary anastamosis. No late deaths occurred. Two late reoperations included a heart transplant in a DORV-Fallot patient with Swiss cheese VSD and subaortic resection in a DORV-ncVSD patient. Angioplasties were needed for PA stenosis (n=2) and aortic arch obstruction (n=2). Four patients had LV to aorta baffle gradients between 10 and 20 mmHg. All patients were of NYHA class I/II.

CONCLUSIONS: The STS-EACTS International Nomenclature provides more uniform analysis of outcomes with respect to acceptable surgical risk and mortality. Biventricular repair can be safely achieved on selected DORV, including DORV-ncVSD and DORV with AVSD and heterotaxy lesions traditionally indicated for a single ventricle palliative approach.

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