Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected subjects with hepatic impairment

Joanna Z Peng, Federico Pulido, Sonja J Kemmis Causemaker, Jianling Li, Alicia Lorenzo, Concepción Cepeda, Juan A García Cabanillas, Barbara DaSilva, Scott C Brun, José Arribas
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2006, 46 (3): 265-74
The effect of hepatic impairment on lopinavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetics was investigated. Twenty-four HIV-1-infected subjects received lopinavir 400 mg/ritonavir 100 mg twice daily prior to and during the study: 6 each with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (and hepatitis C virus coinfected) and 12 with normal hepatic function. Mild and moderate hepatic impairment showed similar effects on lopinavir pharmacokinetics. When the 2 hepatic impairment groups were combined, lopinavir Cmax and AUC12 were increased 20% to 30% compared to the controls. Hepatic impairment increased unbound lopinavir AUC12 by 68% and Cmax by 56%. The effect of hepatic impairment on low-dose ritonavir pharmacokinetics was more pronounced in the moderate impairment group (181% and 221% increase in AUC12 and Cmax, respectively) than in the mild impairment group (39% and 61% increase in AUC12 and Cmax, respectively). While lopinavir/ritonavir dose reduction is not recommended in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, caution should be exercised in this population.

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