RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Bone marrow transplants from mismatched related and unrelated donors for severe aplastic anemia.

For patients with acquired severe aplastic anemia without a matched sibling donor and not responding to immunosuppressive treatment, bone marrow transplantation from a suitable alternative donor is often attempted. We examined risks of graft failure, graft-versus-host disease and overall survival after 318 alternative donor transplants between 1988 and 1998. Sixty-six patients received allografts from 1-antigen and 20 from >1-antigen mismatched related donors; 181 from matched and 51 from mismatched unrelated donors. Most patients were young, had had multiple red blood cell transfusions and poor performance score at transplantation. We did not observe differences in risks of graft failure and overall mortality by donor type. The probabilities of graft failure at 100 days after 1-antigen mismatched related donor, >1-antigen mismatched related donor, matched unrelated donor and mismatched unrelated donor transplants were 21, 25, 15 and 18%, respectively. Corresponding probabilities of overall survival at 5 years were 49, 30, 39 and 36%, respectively. Although alternative donor transplantation results in long-term survival, mortality rates are high. Poor performance score and older age adversely affect outcomes after transplantation. Therefore, early referral for transplantation should be encouraged for patients who fail immunosuppressive therapy and have a suitable alternative donor.

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