Pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a specific and sensitive method of diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux-related pulmonary aspiration

Stephen Farrell, Cyril McMaster, David Gibson, Michael D Shields, William A McCallion
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 2006, 41 (2): 289-93

OBJECTIVES: Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR)-related aspiration is associated with respiratory disease, but the current "gold standard" investigation, the lipid-laden macrophage index (LLMI), is flawed. A specific marker of GOR-related aspiration should originate in the stomach, but not the lung. An assay to detect gastric pepsin in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of children was developed and validated.

METHODS: Gastro-oesophageal reflux was diagnosed in 33 children using intra-oesophageal pH monitoring. Thirteen asymptomatic negative controls requiring endotracheal intubation for elective surgery and 5 positive control patients with observed aspiration were recruited. All subjects received a BAL; the fluid obtained was analysed for the pepsin content and the LLMI.

RESULTS: All subjects in the negative control group were negative for pepsin. The positive control group had a significantly greater median pepsin level (P < .01) compared with negative controls. Patients with proximal oesophageal GOR and chronic cough also had significantly elevated pepsin levels (P = .04). The LLMI was not significantly elevated by the presence of cough or GOR.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that GOR-related aspiration plays a role in chronic cough in children with known GOR. Detecting pepsin in BAL fluid may therefore become an important adjunct in patient selection for antireflux surgery.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"