Femtosecond fluorescence dynamics of porphyrin in solution and solid films: the effects of aggregation and interfacial electron transfer between porphyrin and TiO2

Liyang Luo, Chen-Fu Lo, Ching-Yao Lin, I-Jy Chang, Eric Wei-Guang Diau
Journal of Physical Chemistry. B 2006 January 12, 110 (1): 410-9
The excited-state relaxation dynamics of a synthetic porphyrin, ZnCAPEBPP, in solution, coated on a glass substrate as solid films, mixed with PMMA and coated on a glass substrate as solid films, and sensitized on nanocrystalline TiO2 films were investigated by using femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion spectroscopy with excitation in the Soret band, S2. We found that the S2--> S1 electronic relaxation of ZnCAPEBPP in solution and on PMMA films occurs in 910 and 690 fs, respectively, but it becomes extremely rapid, <100 fs, in solid films and TiO2 films due to formation of porphyrin aggregates. When probed in the S1 state of porphyrin, the fluorescence transients of the solid films show a biphasic kinetic feature with the rapid and slow components decaying in 1.9-2.4 and 19-26 ps, respectively. The transients in ZnCAPEBPP/TiO2 films also feature two relaxation processes but they occur on different time scales, 100-300 fs and 0.8-4.1 ps, and contain a small offset. According to the variation of relaxation period as a function of molecular density on a TiO2 surface, we assigned the femtosecond component of the TiO2 films as due to indirect interfacial electron transfer through a phenylethynyl bridge attached to one of four meso positions of the porphyrin ring, and the picosecond component arising from intermolecular energy transfer among porphyrins. The observed variation of aggregate-induced relaxation periods between solid and TiO2 films is due mainly to aggregation of two types: J-type aggregation is dominant in the former case whereas H-type aggregation prevails in the latter case.

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