Journal Article
Review
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

The epidemiology of cerebral palsy: incidence, impairments and risk factors.

PURPOSE: Describing the epidemiology of cerebral palsy (CP), its impairments and risk factors.

METHOD: Literature review 1965-2004. Search terms: Cerebral palsy, incidence, prevalence, impairments, risk factors.

RESULTS: In the last 40 years the prevalence of CP has risen to well above 2.0 per 1000 life births. In this time span the proportion of low-birthweight infants rose, the proportion of diplegia decreased, while the proportion of hemiplegia increased. CP is more prevalent in more deprived socio-economic populations. The majority of people with CP have the spastic syndrome of which the diplegic group is the smallest. Dependent on the subgroup of CP, 25-80% have additional impairments. A large proportion has some kind of cognitive impairment; the prevalence varies with the type of CP and especially increases when epilepsy is present. Epilepsy is present in 20-40%; it is most common among the hemi- and tetraplegics. Sensibility of the hands is impaired in about half. Chronic pain is reported by more than a quarter of the adults. Up to 80% have at least some impairment of speech. Low visual acuity is reported in almost three-quarters of all children. Half of all children have gastrointestinal and feeding problems. Stunted growth occurs in a quarter, while under- or overweight problems are present in half of the children. Almost 70% of people with spastic CP have abnormal brain CT findings; abnormal cranial ultrasounds is most strongly associated with hemiplegia, normal cranial ultrasounds with diplegia. The most important risk factors for CP are low birthweight, intrauterine infections and multiple gestation.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app