[Newer treatment of epilepsy—brain pacemakers and transcranial magnetic stimulation]

Naoki Akamatsu
Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology 2005, 45 (11): 928-30
The antiepileptic medication and surgical treatment had brought many patients with epilepsy to be seizure free, however, one third of the patients continue to experience seizures. There has recently been an explosion of research into brain stimulation for treating these intractable epilepsy patients. This is largely due to the success of deep brain stimulation of movement disorders. The intelligent cardiac pacemakers also stimulated the neurosurgeons to utilize the implantable devices. In this paper, brain stimulations with vagus nerve stimulator (VNS), depth electrodes, subdural electrodes, external responsive neuro-stimulator, implantable brain stimulator and transcranial magnetic stimulator are reviewed. The VNS had been approved in Europe and United States for clinical use. The efficacy of the VNS has already proven by the controlled trials. Stimulation of the thalamus, subthalamic nucleus and hippocampus showed some efficacy in a small number of patients, however, large scale traials remains to be undertaken. External responsive neurostimulator has shown efficacy and safety to justify further studies with implantable brain stimulators. The multi-center cooperative study is ongoing in the US to examine the usefulness of the implantable stimulator. Animal studies showed efficacy of the transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment and prevention of the seizures and status epilepticus.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"